Welfare State in Europe
“Welfare State” refers to a series of interventions organized by the targeted state to ensure the provision of at least expert services to the population by social security methods.
The beginnings of this particular method of social security can be traced back to the late 19th century in Germany by Chancellor Bismarck. However, this program was not generalized to Europe until after World War II.
The Welfare State is based on 4 main pillars:
1. Compulsory and free primary training and substantial subsidized training at higher levels.
2. Initially free public health care which in some places in Europe has been restricted to certain collectives, together with others had to add to its cost.
3. Social security, and essentially pensions, which are financed by payments made by employees during their tenure, although it is also an insurance system that handles a variety of different situations (orphans, illness, widowhood, etc.).
4. Community services, including all types of assistance aimed at meeting certain less favorable collective needs, with a particular focus on the care of dependents.
A distinction is usually made between the 3 different types of Welfare States in Europe (Social Democracy, Liberal and Conservative). However, the collapse of the communist experiment and the integration of the welfare state into a market economy has resulted in a series of new types of welfare states in Eastern and Central Europe, which continue to be defined.
Below we detail the various versions and their main characteristics:
– The Social Democratic/Nordic model. Key characteristics: high taxes, a high amount of income redistribution, a high number of women’s involvement in the labor sector, a high standard of citizenship and living with a significant level of trust in their payphone systems (Denmark, Norway, Iceland, Sweden and Finland ).
– Conservative/Corporatist Model. Within this group there is a small subgroup created by Southern European countries, and they write about certain normal traits, although this is not entirely important for them to be seen as an impartial team. Main characteristics: Reduced number of women’s participation in the labor sector, dependence on social efforts rather than taxes, reasonable redistribution of higher rates and unemployment income, especially in Southern European countries. (Austria, Belgium, Germany, Greece, Italy, Malta, Cyprus, Turkey, Luxembourg, Netherlands, Portugal) and Spain
– Anglo-Saxon/Liberal model. Key features: Reduced total state spending, high levels of low levels and inequality of spending on social protection. (Switzerland, UK and Ireland)
The model is still in the characterization stage in Eastern and Central Europe.
– Types of the Former Soviet Union. Key features: Prefers the prudential model with respect to full-blown state spending. The best disparity lies in the quality level and trustworthiness of the public telephone systems (Belarus, Lithuania, Latvia, Estonia, Russian Federation and also Ukraine).
-Communist European Post Type. The quality of life is actually higher than in the previous team and the methods are much more egalitarian. On the other hand, they present much more reasonable rates of economic development and inflation than in the countries linked to the previous model. (Bulgaria, Croatia, Czech Republic, Hungary, Slovakia and Poland).
Welfare State type of growth procedure. This relates to destinations that are still in the process of maturing the welfare state in Europe. State aid programs as well as quality of life signs actually fall under the aforementioned organizations. The high rates of low quality of life and higher infant mortality rates reflect the difficult social situation that exists in these countries. (Georgia, Moldavia and Romania).